STDs are Sexually Transmitted Diseases while STIs are Sexually Transmitted Infections. STIs are transmitted through sexual activity (vaginal, oral, & anal) and as a result of the infection, these STIs can become STDs overtime.
• Chlamydia and LGV – Chlamydia is an infection caused by bacteria and may cause permanent damage to the reproductive organs, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and death. In 2008 there were 1,210,523 reported cases.
• Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)* – BV is a condition in females where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning. BV also increases a woman’s risk of infection after major surgery and complications during pregnancy.
• HPV/GenitalWarts – Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is an infection that affects the genital areas, mouths, and throats and may cause genital warts, warts in the throat, and cancer. In 2008 there were 385,000 cases based on initial visits to the physician’s office.
• Herpes – Genital herpes is a virus that causes blisters on or around the genitals or rectum that may break to form ulcers. Herpes may also cause flu-like symptoms and psychological distress. Herpes may be transmitted from a mother to her baby at birth. In 2008 there were 292,000 cases based on initial
visits to the physician’s office.
• Trichomoniasis – Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite and usually affects the vagina in females and the urethra in males. Females may experience vaginal discharge with a strong odor, discomfort during intercourse and urination, and irritation and itching of the female genital area. In 2008 there were
204,000 cases based on initial visits to the physician’s office.
• Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – PID refers to infection of the reproductive organs caused by serious complication of other STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. PID can lead to permanent damage of the reproductive organs, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abscess formation, internal bleeding, and death. In 2008 there were 104,000 cases.
• HIV/AIDS – The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an untreatable virus that destroys blood cells that are crucial to helping the body fight diseases. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most advanced stage of HIV. HIV/AIDS causes people to get sick with diseases that would not normally affect them. The disease may lead to depression, neurological disorders, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, severe infections, growths on the skin or inside the mouth, bleeding from growths on the skin or any opening in the body, paralysis, confusion, and decreased mental abilities. (In 2008 there were 78,420 diagnoses.
• Gonorrhea – Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and in the urethra in women and men. The bacterium can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. In females, Gonorrhea may cause painful urination, vaginal discharge, and increased risk of serious complications from infection. In 2008 there were 336,742 reported cases.
Sexually Transmitted Infections: Causes &Consequences, Human Life Alliance, www.humanlife.org.